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Check your paper for unintentional plagiarism, grammar, spelling errors, and more! Use «could have» or the informal «could’ve» here. Quickly add a bibliography and unlimited citations directly to your paper. Our easy to read guide comes complete with visual examples and step by step instructions to format your citations and your paper in MLA style. Formatting instructions, sample papers, and citation examples provide you with the tools you need to style your paper in APA. Our guide provides everything you need! Learn the basics and fundamentals to creating citations in Chicago format.
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HERE for a more elaborate version of this page. Not recommended for 28 or 56k phone-line connections. Click HERE for help with Powerpoint. He hit the ball, dropped the bat, and ran to first base.
You may have learned that the comma before the «and» is unnecessary, which is fine if you’re in control of things. If there is ever any doubt, however, use the comma, as it is always correct in this situation. One of the most frequent errors in comma usage is the placement of a comma after a coordinating conjunction. We cannot say that the comma will always come before the conjunction and never after, but it would be a rare event, indeed, that we need to follow a coordinating conjunction with a comma. When speaking, we do sometimes pause after the little conjunction, but there is seldom a good reason to put a comma there.
For additional information on coordinating conjunctions, click HERE. Use a comma to set off introductory elements, as in «Running toward third base, he suddenly realized how stupid he looked. It is permissible to omit the comma after a brief introductory element if the omission does not result in confusion or hesitancy in reading. If there is ever any doubt, use the comma, as it is always correct. If you would like some additional guidelines on using a comma after introductory elements, click HERE. Use a comma to set off parenthetical elements, as in «The Founders Bridge, which spans the Connecticut River, is falling down.
Appositives are almost always treated as parenthetical elements. Calhoun’s ambition, to become a goalie in professional soccer, is within his reach. Eleanor, his wife of thirty years, suddenly decided to open her own business. Sometimes the appositive and the word it identifies are so closely related that the comma can be omitted, as in «His wife Eleanor suddenly decided to open her own business. Although Queasybreath had spent several years in Antarctica, he still bundled up warmly in the brisk autumns of Ohio. Because Tashonda had learned to study by herself, she was able to pass the entrance exam. When an adverbial clause comes later on in the sentence, however, the writer must determine if the clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence or not.
A «because clause» can be particularly troublesome in this regard. The Okies had to leave their farms in the midwest because the drought conditions had ruined their farms. I knew that President Nixon would resign that morning, because my sister-in-law worked in the White House and she called me with the news. Without that comma, the sentence says that Nixon’s resignation was the fault of my sister-in-law. Nixon did not resign because my sister-in-law worked in the White House, so we set off that clause to make the meaning clearly parenthetical. The Red Sox were leading the league at the end of May, but of course, they always do well in the spring.
The Yankees didn’t do so well in the early going, but frankly, everyone expects them to win the season. The Tigers spent much of the season at the bottom of the league, and even though they picked up several promising rookies, they expect to be there again next year. When both a city’s name and that city’s state or country’s name are mentioned together, the state or country’s name is treated as a parenthetical element. We visited Hartford, Connecticut, last summer. Paris, France, is sometimes called «The City of Lights. Hartford, Connecticut’s investment in the insurance industry is well known. Heublein, a Hartford, Connecticut-based company, is moving to another state.