Universal health care does not imply coverage for all people for everything. Universal health care can be determined by three critical dimensions: who is covered, what services are covered, and how much of the cost should the government provide health care essay covered.
United Nations member states have agreed to work toward worldwide universal health coverage by 2030. One of the goals with universal healthcare is to create a system of protection which provides equality of opportunity for people to enjoy an attainable level of health. The first move towards a national health insurance system was launched in Germany in 1883, with the Sickness Insurance Law. Industrial employers were mandated to provide injury and illness insurance for their low-wage workers, and the system was funded and administered by employees and employers through «sick funds», which were drawn from deductions in workers’ wages and from employers’ contributions. Other countries soon began to follow suit. In New Zealand, a universal health care system was created in a series of steps, from 1939 to 1941. Following World War II, universal health care systems began to be set up around the world.
On July 5, 1948, the United Kingdom launched its universal National Health Service. From the 1970s to the 2000s, Southern and Western European countries began introducing universal coverage, most of them building upon previous health insurance programs to cover the whole population. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia retained and reformed its universal health care system, as did other former Soviet nations and Eastern bloc countries. Universal health care in most countries has been achieved by a mixed model of funding. Almost all European systems are financed through a mix of public and private contributions. This is usually enforced via legislation requiring residents to purchase insurance, but sometimes the government provides the insurance. In some European countries, in which private insurance and universal health care coexist, such as Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands, the problem of adverse selection is overcome by using a risk compensation pool to equalize, as far as possible, the risks between funds.
The Republic of Ireland at one time had a «community rating» system by VHI, effectively a single-payer or common risk pool. The government later opened VHI to competition but without a compensation pool. Among the potential solutions posited by economists are single-payer systems as well as other methods of ensuring that health insurance is universal, such as by requiring all citizens to purchase insurance or limiting the ability of insurance companies to deny insurance to individuals or vary price between individuals. Single-payer health care is a system in which the government, rather than private insurers, pays for all health care costs. In tax-based financing, individuals contribute to the provision of health services through various taxes. These are typically pooled across the whole population, unless local governments raise and retain tax revenues. In a social health insurance system, contributions from workers, the self-employed, enterprises, and governments are pooled into a single or multiple funds on a compulsory basis.
It is based on risk pooling. In private health insurance, premiums are paid directly from employers, associations, individuals and families to insurance companies, which pool risks across their membership base. Private insurance includes policies sold by commercial for profit firms, non-profit companies, and community health insurers. Generally, private insurance is voluntary in contrast to social insurance programs, which tend to be compulsory. In some countries with universal coverage, private insurance often excludes many health conditions that are expensive and the state health care system can provide. The Planning Commission of India has also suggested that the country should embrace insurance to achieve universal health coverage.
General tax revenue is currently used to meet the essential health requirements of all people. A particular form of private health insurance that has often emerged if financial risk protection mechanisms have only a limited impact is community-based health insurance. Individual members of a specific community pay to a collective health fund, which they can draw from when they need of medical care. Contributions are not risk-related, and there is generally a high level of community involvement in the running of these plans. In some countries, such as the UK, Spain, Italy, Australia and the Nordic countries, the government has a high degree of involvement in the commissioning or delivery of health care services and access is based on residence rights, not on the purchase of insurance. These insurance based systems tend to reimburse private or public medical providers, often at heavily regulated rates, through mutual or publicly owned medical insurers.
Universal health care is a broad concept that has been implemented in several ways. The common denominator for all such programs is some form of government action aimed at extending access to health care as widely as possible and setting minimum standards. Most implement universal health care through legislation, regulation and taxation. Legislation and regulation direct what care must be provided, to whom, and on what basis. The world health report: health systems financing: the path to universal coverage». Lead to the Freedom to Lead Flourishing and Healthy Lives?
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