This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Managing Stage Boundaries is one of seven processes that make up PRINCE2, a systematic approach to project management developed by the UK’s Office of Government Managing project and used widely in UK government and industry.
It is a decision point in the continuity of the project, from which the project will be either continued as planned, adjusted or stopped. The process is managed by the Project Manager, who informs the Project Board of the likelihood of success in attaining the project’s business objective, project plan, together with associated risks and issues. If the Project Board is satisfied with the current stage end and the next stage plan, the project is permitted to continue. Managing Stage Boundaries is therefore a vital process in the management of the project. Current Plan actuals, used for showing the improvements from the original Stage Plan. The Stage Plan represents the basis of the Project Manager’s day-to-day control and identifies in detail key deliverables, resource requirements and the total cost. Next Stage Plan, which represents the actual information stage with added facts and information, and forms part of the Project Board’s assessment criteria for continuation of the project.
The Project Plan gives an overview of the total project, identifies key deliverables, resource requirements, the total cost, and major control points within the project, such as stage boundaries. It is used by the Project Board to measure the progress made and is revised and updated to reflect the latest understanding of the project. Updated Risk Log, provides identification, estimation, impact evaluation and countermeasures for all risks of the project. It is created during the start-up and developed during the life of the project and is used by the Project Board to check the viability of the project. The Business Case is a part of the project mandate and is produced before the project is initiated.
It includes the reasons for the project, expected business benefits, expected costs and expected risks. The ongoing viability of the project is monitored by the Project Board against this Business Case, which is updated with any new changes. Lessons Learned Report, describing lessons learned from any events occurring in each stage. Revised Project Management Team List This team comprises the entire management structure of Project Board, project manager, plus any Team Managers and project assurance roles. The team is checked and changes are updated if there are any.
End Stage Report, given by the Project Manager to the Project Board and containing the results achieved during the stage. What are the benefits of ERT, HRT, and NHRT? Estrogen, especially oral estrogen, can help improve cholesterol levels, but in recent studies, that has not translated into a reduced risk of heart disease. The benefits of estrogen replacement therapy are not yet fully known and understood, and much remains to be learned about the differing effects of ERT and HRT in their various formulations. For example, oral and transdermal estrogens have somewhat different effects because of the way the estrogen enters the body. More research is needed to clarify these effects. Risks and side effects of HRT There are a number of risks and side effects associated with HRT.
It is difficult to determine the extent to which NHRT is associated with most risks and side effects because of the lack of long-term clinical trials using NHRT or comparing bio-identical hormone replacement with other forms of HRT in the United States. Estrogen alone or other HRT regimens may not raise the risk of breast cancer significantly. Increased breast density, making mammograms more difficult to interpret and possibly increasing breast cancer risk. Slightly increased risk of heart attack or stroke, both in women with cardiovascular disease and in healthy women. Bloating and fluid retention, primarily associated with progestins, e.
Negative effects on mood, primarily associated with progestins, e. Note: These side effects seem to be associated with oral estrogen and not with transdermal estrogen. Some women find that trying a different type of HRT, such as switching to bio-identical hormones, using a transdermal product instead of pills, or trying a different regimen, may reduce or eliminate side effects and work better for them. Blood clots in the veins or legs, or in the lungs. This includes women who have had blood clots during pregnancy or when taking birth control pills. For a long time, it was thought that ERT and HRT reduced the risk of heart disease, based on large observational studies that found lower rates of heart disease in ERT and HRT users. However, research has found that women who have had a recent heart attack or a stroke are more likely to have a second heart attack or stroke if they start taking HRT.