Analytical chemistry lab report - HaagsehonderdNl Analytical chemistry lab report - HaagsehonderdNl

Analytical chemistry lab report

Analytical chemistry lab report

Please forward this error screen to 209. Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. Analytical chemistry lab report article needs additional citations for verification. Clandestine chemistry is chemistry carried out in secret, and particularly in illegal drug laboratories.

Ancient forms of clandestine chemistry included the manufacturing of explosives. Another old form of clandestine chemistry is the illegal brewing and distillation of alcohol. This is frequently done to avoid taxation on spirits. From 1919 to 1933, the United States prohibited the sale, manufacture, or transportation of alcoholic beverages. Some drugs, like cocaine and morphine, are extracted from plant sources and refined with the aid of chemicals. Because many legitimate industrial chemicals such as anhydrous ammonia and iodine are also necessary in the processing and synthesis of most illicitly produced drugs, preventing the diversion of these chemicals from legitimate commerce to illicit drug manufacturing is a difficult job.

Chemicals critical to the production of cocaine, heroin, and synthetic drugs are produced in many countries throughout the world. Many manufacturers and suppliers exist in Europe, China, India, the United States, and a host of other countries. Historically, chemicals critical to the synthesis or manufacture of illicit drugs are introduced into various venues via legitimate purchases by companies that are registered and licensed to do business as chemical importers or handlers. The Multilateral Chemical Reporting Initiative encourages governments to exchange information on a voluntary basis in order to monitor international chemical shipments.

Over the past decade, key international bodies like the Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the U. These organizations raised specific concerns about potassium permanganate and acetic anhydride. Many nations still lack the capacity to determine whether the import or export of precursor chemicals is related to legitimate needs or illicit drugs. The problem is complicated by the fact that many chemical shipments are either brokered or transshipped through third countries in an attempt to disguise their purpose or destination. 1013 which outlined for the monitoring of drug precursors traded between the Union and third countries. The Regulation also establishes uniform procedures for licensing and registration of operators and users who are listed in a European database tracking drug precursors. Despite this long history of law enforcement actions, restrictions of chemicals, and even covert military actions, many illicit drugs are still widely available all over the world.

In countries where strict chemical controls have been put in place, illicit drug production has been seriously affected. For example, few of the chemicals needed to process coca leaf into cocaine are manufactured in Bolivia or Peru. Most are smuggled in from neighbouring countries with advanced chemical industries or diverted from a smaller number of licit handlers. As a result, Bolivian lab operators are now using inferior substitutes such as cement instead of lime and sodium bicarbonate instead of ammonia and recycled solvents like ether. This heroin precursor continues to account for the largest volume of internationally seized chemicals, according to the International Narcotics Control Board.